In the article questions of functioning of a jury in Russia after the democratic reforms of Alexander II in second half of XIX century, its abolition in 1917 and during the modern period after their revival in the Russian Federation in 1993 are considered. The jury takes a special place among institutes of the Russian justice. In XIX century it was unconventional experiment which could exist 50 years till the beginning of the Soviet period, and afterwards has been restored in modern legal system of Russia. Initially the jury trial in Russia was created with an eye on foreign experience and subsequently acquired its original features. During the modern period the jury is transformed to the differentiated order of criminal trial intended for consideration of criminal cases where citizens-non-lawyers solved the question about whether the accused is guilty.